Black Walnut

Black Walnut - Juglans nigra

 

Description

Juglans nigra, the Eastern Black walnut, is a species of flowering tree in the hickory family,Juglandaceae,

 

Geographic Distribution of the Eastern Black Walnut

The Black Walnut  is native to eastern North America. It grows mostly from southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas.

The black walnut is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of  up to 40 metres or 130 ft.

Under forest competition it develops a tall, clear bole; the open-grown form has a short bole and broad crown.

The bark is grey-black and deeply furrowed. The pith of the twigs contains air spaces. The leaves are alternate, 30–60 cm long, odd-pinnate with 15–23 leaflets, the largest leaflets located in the center, 7–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad.

Flowering

Eastern Black Walnut Catkins

The male flowers are in drooping catkins 8–10 cm long, the female flowers terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening during the autumn into a fruit (nut) with a brownish-green, semi-fleshy husk and a brown corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in October; the seed is relatively small and very hard. The tree tends to crop more heavily in alternate years.

 

Black Walnut Geographic Spread

 

While its primary native region is the midwest and east central United States, the black walnut was introduced into Europe in 1629. It is cultivated there and in North America as a forest tree for its high quality wood. Nuts are produced more by open-grown trees. Black walnut is more resistant to frost than the Persian walnut (also known as the English walnut), but thrives best in the warmer regions of fertile, lowland soils with a high water table. It is a light-demanding species. The wood is used to make furniture, flooring, and rifle stocks, and oil is pressed from the seeds. Nuts are harvested by hand from wild trees.

Missouri.[citation needed] The black walnut nutmeats are used as an ingredient in food while the hard black walnut shell is used commercially in abrasive cleaning, cosmetics, and oil well drilling and water filtration.

Where the range of J. nigra overlaps that of the Texas black walnut J. microcarpa, the two species sometimes interbreed, producing populations with characteristics intermediate between the two species.[1]


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